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Class 12 Compulsory English Unit 2 Family Q&N

 


FAMILY

At its most basic, a family consists of an adult and his or her offspring. Most commonly, it consists of two married adults, usually a man and a woman (almost always from different lineages and not related by blood) along with their offspring, usually living in a private and separate dwelling. This type of unit, more specifically known as a nuclear family, is believed to be the oldest of the various types of families in existence. Sometimes the family includes not only the parents and their unmarried children living at home but also children that have married, their spouses, and their offspring, and possibly elderly dependents as well; such an arrangement is called an extended family.

At its best, the family performs various valuable functions for its members. Perhaps most important of all, it provides for emotional and psychological security, particularly through the warmth, love, and companionship that living together generates between spouses and in turn between them and their children. The family also provides a valuable social and political function by institutionalizing procreation and by providing guidelines for the regulation of sexual conduct. The family additionally provides such other socially beneficial functions as the rearing and socialization of children, along with such humanitarian activities as caring for its members when they are sick or disabled. On the economic side, the family provides food, shelter, clothing, and physical security for its members, some of whom may be too young or too old to provide for the basic necessities of life themselves. Finally, on the social side, the family may serve to promote order and stability within society as whole.

Historically, in most cultures, the family was patriarchal, or male-dominated. Perhaps the most striking example of the male-dominated family is the description of the family given in the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), where the male heads of the clans were allowed to have several wives as well as concubines. As a general rule, women had a rather low status. In Roman times the family was still patriarchal, but polygamy was not practiced, and in general the status of women was somewhat improved over that suggested in the Hebrew Bible, although they still were not allowed to manage their own affairs. The Roman family was an extended one. The family as it existed in medieval Europe was male-dominated and extended.

In the West, industrialization and the accompanying urbanization spawned—and continue to spawn—many changes in family structure by causing a sharp change in life and occupational styles. Many people, particularly unmarried youths, left farms and went to urban centres to become industrial workers. This process led to the dissolution of many extended families.

The modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution is different from the earlier model. For instance, patriarchal rule began to give way to greater equality between the sexes. Similarly, family roles once considered exclusively male or female broke down. Caring for the home and children, once the exclusive duty of the female, is often a shared activity, as, increasingly, is the earning of wages and the pursuit of public life, once the exclusive domain of the male. The structure of the family is also changing in that some couples choose not to marry legally and instead elect to have their children out of wedlock; many of these informal relationships tend to be of short duration, and this—as well as the rise in levels of divorce—has led to a rapid increase in the number of one-parent households.

Family law varies from culture to culture, but in its broadest application it defines the legal relationships among family members as well as the relationships between families and society at large. Some of the important questions dealt with in family law include the terms and parameters of marriage, the status of children, and the succession of property from one generation to the next. In nearly every case, family law represents a delicate balance between the interests of society and the protection of individual rights.

The general rule in marriages until modern times was the legal transfer of dependency, that of the bride, from father to groom. Not only did the groom assume guardianship, he usually assumed control over all of his wife’s affairs. Often, the woman lost any legal identity through marriage, as was the case in English common law. There have been exceptions to this practice. Muslim women, for instance, had considerable control over their own personal property. The use of dowries, an amount of money or property given to the husband with the bride in compensation for her dependency, has long been practiced in many countries, but it has tended to disappear in many industrial societies.

In general, modern marriage is best-described as a voluntary union, usually between a man and a woman (although there are still vestiges of the arranged marriage that once flourished in eastern Europe and Asia). The emancipation of women in the 19th and 20th centuries changed marriage dramatically, particularly in connection with property and economic status. By the mid-20th century, most Western countries had enacted legislation establishing equality between spouses. Similarly changed is the concept of economic maintenance, which traditionally fell on the shoulders of the husband. Though many laws still lean toward this view, there was increasing recognition of a woman’s potential to contribute to the support of the family. At the beginning of the 21st century, family law and the notion of family itself was further complicated by calls for acceptance of same-sex marriages and nontraditional families.

Dissolution of marriages is one of the areas in which laws must try to balance private and public interest, since realistically it is the couple itself that can best decide whether its marriage is viable. In many older systems—e.g., Roman, Muslim, Jewish, Chinese, and Japanese—some form of unilateral divorce was possible, requiring only one party to give notice of the intention, usually the male. Most modern systems recognize a mutual request for divorce, though many require an attempt to reconcile before granting divorce. Extreme circumstances, in which blatant neglect, abuse, misbehaviour, or incapacity can be demonstrated, find resolution in civil court. Many systems favour special family courts that attempt to deal more fairly with sensitive issues such as custody of children.

The issue of children poses special problems for family law. In nearly every culture, the welfare of children was formerly left to the parents entirely, and this usually meant the father. Most societies have come to recognize the general benefit of protecting children’s rights and of prescribing certain standards of rearing. Thus, more than in any other area, family law intervenes in private lives with regard to children. Compulsory education is an example of the law superseding parental authority. In the case of single-parent homes, the law will frequently provide some form of support. Legislation on child labour and child abuse also asserts society’s responsibility for a child’s best interests.

The succession of family interests upon the death of its members can be considered a part of family law. Most legal systems have some means of dealing with division of property left by a deceased family member. The will, or testament, specifies the decedent’s wishes as to such distribution, but a surviving spouse or offspring may contest what appear to be unreasonable or inequitable provisions. There are also laws that recognize family claims in the event that property is left intestate (i.e., with no will to determine its distribution).

- Alan John Barnard


 Working with words

A.            Find the words from the text and solve the puzzle. Clues are given below.

 

 

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ACROSS

1. the custom of having more than one wife at the same time=Polygamy

5.      to find an acceptable way of dealing with opposing ideas, needs etc.=Conflict

6.      the process in which towns, streets, etc. are built where there was once countryside=Urbanization

7.      the process by which somebody learns to behave in an acceptable way in their society= Socialization 


DOWN

1.      ruled or controlled by men=Patriarchy

2.      the act of taking over a position=takeover

3.      done in a way without caring if people are shocked=Surprise

4.      single-parent=lone-parent


B.  Find the meanings of the following family-related words and use them in your own sentences.


     

Nuclear family:
            Family group consisting of parents and their children.                                             
   Sentence   : I live in a nuclear family and my parents are enough modern.
Monogamy:
                                  The practice of marrying or state of being married to one person at a time.
    Sentence: When my husband and I got married, we took a vow of monogamy
Sibling-in-law:
                       Brother-in-law or sister-in-law
     Sentence: I had sibling-in-law, who came last Monday to see me.
Milk kinship:
                     A form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members
                 : Milk kinship, formed during nursing by a non-biological mother
Matrilineal:
                 Based on kinship with the mother or the female line
              : The fact that all livestock are inherited along the matrilineal line is exceptional.
Nepotism:
                The practice among those with power or influence of favoring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs.
               : The nepotism in which the pope indulged is especially inexcusable.
Maternity:
               The period during pregnancy and shortly after childbirth, motherhood
             : Many expectant mothers were crowded out of the maternity hospitals.
 

A.            The following words are from the above text. Each word has two parts. polygamy, unmarried, nontraditional, dissolution, inequitable

poly, un, non, dis and in are prefixes. They make new words when they are added to the beginning of other root words.

Make at least five words using the prefixes given. Consult a dictionary to learn how they change the meaning of root words.

Pre- preposition, precaution, previews, prefer, prepare

Semi-, semiabandoned, semiabstract, semiarid, semicasual, semiacid   

Sub- subconscious, subjugate, submissive, subordinate, subsidiary

Mis- misunderstand, mistake, misbehave, mistrust, misspell

Mono- monochrome, monocot, monocular, monoplane, monopoly

Un- unhappy, unhealthy, untouchable, undo, unemployment,

In- internal, inflated, inject, informal, infant,      

Inter-. Intermission, interactive, intercept, interchange, interlock 

Comprehension

A.            The headings of the first five paragraphs of the above text are given below. Write paragraph number next to them.

a.              Patriarchal family

b.             Functions of the family

c.              Modern model of family

d.             Effects of industrialization on family structure

e.              Defining family

B.            Answer the following questions.
          a.              What type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family?

Ans:

   Nuclear type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family.

       b.             How does a family provide security to its members?

Ans:

       Family provides for emotional and psychological security particular through the warmth, love, and companionship that living together generates between spouses and in turn between them and their children. 

       c.              What were the features of medieval European family?

Ans:

     The features of medieval European family were male-dominated and extended.

       d.             What caused the dissolution of extended families in the West?

Ans:

     Many people, particularly unmarried youths, left farms and went to urban centres to become industrial workers which led to the dissolution of many extended families in the West.

          e.              What change occurred in gender role in the modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution?

Ans:

     After the Industrial Revolution occur some changed in gender role n the modern family are mention;

                                  i.            Patriarchal rule began to give way to greater equality between the sexes. Similarly, family roles once considered exclusively male or female broke down.

                           ii.            The rising levels of divorce led to increase     in the number of one-parent households.

       f.              What is family law?

Ans:

       Family law is defines the legal relationships among family members as well as the relationships between families and society at large.

       g.             How is modern marriage defined?

Ans:

       Modern marriage is define as a voluntary union, usually between a man and a woman

       h.             What do special family courts try to do?

Ans:

         Special family court tries to attempt deal more fairly with sensitive issues such as custody of children.

       i.               What does the legislation on child labour and child abuse declare?

Ans:

      The legislation on child labour and child abuse declares that Compulsory education is need to every child's and also asserts society’s responsibility for a child’s best interests.

       j.               What is common among most legal systems regarding property?

Ans:

     Most legal regarding property systems means of dealing with division of property left by a deceased family member.

 Critical thinking

a.             What changes have started to occur in Nepali families in recent days? What impacts will they bring on the society? Discuss.

Ans:

      Since the world is now 21st century everything is gradually developing through traditional technology to modern technology. Now day people want to satisfy their feeling. They change their behaviour to family lifestyle in modern technology. They want to live in nuclear family with the full of happiness with child, husband and wife but other side in there is rapid increase of divorce in Nepal due to misunderstand in Nuclear family.  In Nepali families both male and female can rule household, country. Everybody male and female is getting equal right in family. Every family member understanding each other felling, happy and they can share their idea, concept in family member. In Nepalese families young age at marriage in Nepal is closely linked to the widespread practice of arranged marriages, where relationships and agreements between families prevail over individual choices.  Thus, a decline in very early marriage, accompanied by a decrease in the interval between marriage and cohabitation, may indicate a change in the marital decision-making process and an increase in the level of involvement on the part of spouses in the formation of their own marital unions.

     In my views change in Nepalese families in recent day play both negative and positive impact will bring in Society.

 

b.             We see many elderly people in the elderly homes these days in Nepal. Some of them are abandoned while others live there willingly. Do you think Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture? Give reasons.

Ans:

     Soon available 



 Writing         

A.             Write an essay on The Importance of Family. In your essay, you can use these guiding questions.

·                Why family is important to you.

·                Why family is or is not important for society.

·                How you think families will change in the future.

Ans:

      In today’s world when everything is losing its meaning, we need to realize the importance of family more than ever. While the world is becoming more modern and advanced, the meaning of family and what stands for remains the same. It does not matter what kind of family one belongs to. It is all equal as long as there are caring and acceptance. You may be from a joint family, same-sex partner family, nuclear family, it is all the same. The relationships we have with our members make our family strong. We all have unique relations with each family member. In addition to other things, a family is the strongest unit in one’s life.

    One cannot emphasize enough on the importance of family. They play a great role in our lives and make us better human beings. The one lucky enough to have a family often do not realize the value of a family. However, those who do not have families know their worth. A family is our source of strength. It teaches us what relationships mean. They help us create meaningful relationships in the outside world. The love we inherit from our families, we pass on to our independent relationships. Moreover, families teach us better communication. When we spend time with our families and love each other and communicate openly, we create a better future for us. When we stay connected with our families, we learn to connect better with the world. Similarly, families teach us patience. It gets tough sometimes to be patient with our family members. Yet we remain so out of love and respect. Thus, it teaches us patience to deal better with the world. Families boost our confidence and make us feel loved. They are the pillars of our strength who never fall instead keep us strong so we become better people.

      As we know that society is important for family. Society is the combination of one or more family member so, without family society cannot create. A family makes us responsible for our duty toward society. Family provides social security in the society. Family introduces you in the society. In the social world without a family an individual's identity is never complete.

     And I think family will change in future due to upgrading of modern technology, 5-10 year there is big family where very family member were residing but now day most of the family is living in nuclear family format.

 

B.             Some people think it is better to live in a nuclear family. Other people think that living in extended family is more advantageous. What do you think? Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Ans:

      Nuclear family is composed of husband, wife and their children, otherwise Extend family composed of grandfather, grandmother, parents, brother and their wives, daughter in-law, grandson etc., who share same kitchen and shelter up to four generation.

   In my views Extend family is better than Nuclear family. Extend family is combination of all generation of member. In these families, all member of the family including the children also grow with the belief that they also have certain duties and function to perform. They should learn to control their demand and expectation. In Nepal, more people prefer to stay in extended family and I'm also one of them in comparison to nuclear family. The advantage of extended family are, in extended family there is a good social and emotional relationship among the family members. There is a proper economic and social security. In extended family there is a proper care and supervision for the children also proper education and control over the problem of adolescence. The important advantage of extended family is a sense of protection of culture, tradition and values. There is not only advantage of Extended family but also some disadvantages occur in extended family. In extended it can push back in personality development. There is less privacy. There may be probability of low living standards. There may be difficult to meet needs and demand of each member in the family. Less of self confidence and dependency may increase in the extended family

       Advantages of Nuclear family are

                                                         i.            There is high understand and cooperation among each other.

                                                       ii.            There is less possibility of quarrel among family member due the fewer members.

                                                     iii.            It is easy to meet need and demand of each family

                                                     iv.            There is freedom of making decisions of their own.

                     Disadvantage of Nuclear family are

                                            i.            There is lack of security and confidence.

                                          ii.            Conflict may arise.

                                        iii.            There is lack of proper care of children and old age people.

                                        iv.            There is generation gap in respecting the norms and value of people.

                                          v.            There is lack of love and care for the children if the couple engaged in professions.


Grammar  

Modal verbs

A.            Study the given sentences carefully.

a.              Please read this letter for me. I can't see without my glasses.

b.             After working for a couple of years in China, I can speak Chinese now.

c.              When he was 40, he could earn six digit salary.

d.             After six hours' climbing, we were able to reach the summit.

e.              Yesterday, I lost my keys. I looked for them everywhere but I couldn't

find.

B.            Choose the best answer to complete the sentences.

a.              'How much was your parking ticket?' 'Fifty rupees.' 'Oh well, it could have

been worse.'

i.   could have                           ii. must have                 iii. should have

b.             It must have got lost in the post. These things happen sometimes.

i.   can't have                           ii. might have                iii. must have

c.              'Sorry I'm late. I got delayed at work.' 'You must have called. I was really

worried about you.'

i.   must have                           ii. could have                iii. would have

d.             'I don't think he meant to be rude.' 'He must have said sorry.'

i.   must have                           ii. might have                iii. would have

e.              'Whose signature is this?' 'I don't know. It could be Manoj's. That looks

a bit like an M.'

i.   must                                    ii. could                         iii. should

f.              I had it when I left the office so I mustn't have lost it on the way to home.

i.   mustn't have                       ii. must have                 iii. should have

g.             You should think it's funny, but I think it's pathetic.

i.   might                                   ii. should                       iii. could


A.            Complete the following sentences with appropriate endings. Use correct modal verbs.

Example: She could be a doctor; however,…………….…………….

She could be a doctor; however, she preferred to be an advocate.

a.              At the end of the course, we must have to ready for test.

b.             If you want to earn a lot of money, I would say something.

c.              You were not in your house yesterday. You shall stay at home.  

d.             I'm quite busy tomorrow. I must have to go for match.

e.              When you were a small kid Now she must be 50 years. 

f.              My car is broken. I should have to repair it.

f.              I've got a fast speed internet at home. I can play game in my device.

g.             Even though she didn't study well, she must like singing and dancing

h.             There are plenty of newspapers in the library. You can read any book if you want.

i.               What do you think you were doing, playing in the road? You could injured by accident.

j.               I have no time. I can't do my work.

k.             You don't look well. You should wear glasses.


Read more: NEB || Class 12 New Compulsory English Unit 1 Critical Thinking🤔|All Exercise Question Answer Full Solution

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